The Diffusion and Evolution of 311 Citizen Service Centers in American Cities from 1996 to 2012: A Study to Identify the Catalysts for the Adoption of Citizen Engagement Technology

December 06, 2016 by John Christopher O'Byrne

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This study of the diffusion and evolution of the 311 innovation in the form of citizen service centers and as a technology cluster has been designed to help identify the catalysts for the spread of government-to-citizen (G2C) technology in local government in order to better position future G2C technology for a more rapid rate of adoption. The 311 non-emergency number was first established in 1996 and had spread to 80 local governments across the United States by 2012. This dissertation examines: what factors contributed to the adoption of 311 in American local governments over 100,000 in population; how did the innovation diffuse and evolve over time; and why did some governments’ communications with citizens became more advanced than others?